Professor of Psychology
Social & Cognition & Perception

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My research focuses on three sets of issues. The first concerns the cognitive, motivational, and social factors that enable people to transcend the "here and now." People often get immersed in their immediate egocentric concerns. My lab examines what enables people to go beyond those myopic concerns and see themselves in the future, through another person's eyes, in different societies and cultures, and in hypothetical and novel situations. There is marked variation in the breadth of people’s mental horizons, namely, in how distant in time, culture, and geography are the possibilities people envision, care about, and plan for. My research seeks to shed light on the psychological mechanisms that narrow or broaden people’s mental horizons. We also explore the real life consequences of narrow vs. broad mental horizons for the way people relate to their social and natural environment.

The second set of issues concerns self control. The question is when and how people fail to do what they want while possessing the knowledge, skill, and opportunity that are required to do what they want. How do we—individuals or groups—(sometimes) manage to act in line with our overriding goals when faced with tempting alternatives? This research investigates the conscious and unconscious mechanisms that serve to resolve conflicts between people's local, short-term concerns and their global, long-term concerns.

The third set of issues distinguishes between analytical and associative thinking and examines the effect of emotional states and personal desires on self perception, social judgment, and decision making. The goal of this research is to understand the mechanisms that underlie stereotyping, confirmatory hypothesis-testing, and wishful thinking about ourselves and others.


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Ledgerwood, A., & Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (in press) Construal Level Theory and Regulatory Scope. Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Sage: New York.

Kleiman, T., Hassin, R., & Trope, Y. (2013). The Control-Freak Mind: Stereotypical Biases are Eliminated Following Conflict-Activated Cognitive ControlJournal of Experimental Psychology: General

Maglio, S. J. & Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (in press). The common currency of psychological distance. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

Steinhart, Y., Carmon, Z., & Trope, Y. (in press). Distant warning of adverse side-effects can backfire. Psychological Science.

Irmak, C., Wakslak, C., & Trope, Y. (in press). Selling the Forest, Buying the Trees: The Effect of Construal Level on Seller-Buyer Price Discrepancy. Journal of Consumer Research.

Fujita, K., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Cunnigham, W. (in press). What is control? A conceptual analysis. In J. W. Sherman, B. Gawronski, B., & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories of the social mind. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Rim, S. Hansen, J., & Trope, Y. (2013). What happens why: Psychological distance and focusing on causes versus consequences of events. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology.

Maglio, S. J. & Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2012). Distance from a distance: Psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Rim, S., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Shapira, O. (2013). The highs and lows of mental representation: A construal level perspective on the structure of knowledge. In D. E. Carlston (Ed.), Handbook of Social Cognition, Oxford University Press.

Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions. Science338, 2225-2229.

Hansen, J., & Trope, Y. (2012). When Time Flies: How Abstract and Concrete Mental Construal Affect the Perception of Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Amit, E., Mehoudar, E., Trope, Y., & Yovel, G. (2012). Do object-category selective regions in the ventral visual stream represent distance information? Brain & Cognition, 80, pp. 201-213.

Shapira, O., Liberman, N., Trope, N., & Rim, S. (2012). Levels of mental construal. In S. Fiske & N. McRae (Eds)., Sage handbook of Social Cognition.

Wakslak, C. J., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2012). Self conceptualization, self knowledge, and regulatory scope: A construal level view. In S. Vazire & T. D. Wilson (Eds.), Handbook of Self Knowledge. New York: Guilford Press.

Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Holistic Person Processing: Faces with Bodies Tell the Whole Story. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 12, 20-37.

Maglio, S. J. & Trope, Y. (2012). Disembodiment: Abstract construal attenuates the influence of contextual bodily state in judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 211-216.

Nussinson, R., Häfner, M., Seibt, B., Strack, F., & Trope, Y. (2012). Approach/ avoidance orientations affect self-construal, experienced closeness to close others, and identification with in-group. Self and Identity, 28(1), 40-58.

Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Rim, S. (2011). Prediction: A construal level perspective. In M. Bar (Ed.), Prediction in the brain: Using the past to generate the future (pp. 144- 158). New York: Oxford University Press.

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2011). Construal level theory. In P. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, and E. T. Higgins (Eds), Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology. London: Sage Publications.

Stephan, E., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2011). The effects of time perspective and level of construal on social distance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 397-402.

Kareev, Y., & Trope, Y. (2011). Correct Acceptance Weighs More Than Correct Rejection: A Decision Bias Induced by Question Framing. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 18, 103-109.

Maglio, S. J., & Trope, Y. (2011). Scale and construal: How larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 18, 165-170.

Ledgerwood, A., & Trope, Y. (2010). Local and global evaluations: Attitudes as self-regulatory guides for near and distant responding. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd edition). New York: Guilford.

Ledgerwood, A., & Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Flexibility and consistency in evaluative responding: The function of construal level. In M. P. Zanna & J. M. Olson (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 43 (pp. 257-295). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Fujita, K., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Seeing the Big Picture: A Construal Level Analysis of Self-Control. In R. Hassin, K. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds)., ). Self control in society, mind, and the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ledgerwood, A., & Trope, Y. (2010). Attitudes as global and local action guides. In J. Forgas, J. Cooper, & W. Crano (Eds.), The 12th annual Sydney symposium of social psychology: The psychology of attitudes and attitude change. New York: Psychology Press.

Ledgerwood, A., Trope, Y., and Chaiken, S. (2010). Flexibility Now, Consistency Later: Psychological Distance and Construal Shape Evaluative RespondingJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 32-51.

Trope, Y. & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal Level Theory of Psychological DistancePsychological Review, 117, 440-463.

Borovoi, L., Liberman, L., & Trope, Y. (2010). The effect of attractive but unavailable alternatives on the attractiveness of near and distant menusJudgment and Decision Making, 5, 102-109.

Stephan, E., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y. (2010). Politeness and social distance: A construal level perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 268-280.

Fishbach, A., Zhang, Y., & Trope, Y. (2010). Counteractive evaluation: Shifts in the implict value of conflicting motivations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

Kyung, E. J., Menon, G., & Trope, Y. (2010). Reconstruction of things past: Why some memories seem so close and others so far away? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 46, 217-220.

Myrseth, K. O.R., Fishbach, A., & Trope, Y. (2009). Counteractive Self-ControlPsychological Science, 20, 159-163.

Wakslak, C. J., & Trope, Y. (2009). The effect of construal-level on subjective probability estimatesPsychological Science, 20, 52-58.

Eyal, T., Sagristano, M. D., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Chaiken, S. (2009). When values matter: Expressing values in behavioral intentions for the near vs. distant futureJournal of Experimental Social Psychology45, 35-43.

Amit, E., Algom, D., Trope, Y. (2009). Distance-dependent processing of pictures and wordsJournal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 400-415.

Henderson, M.D., & Trope, Y. (2009). The effects of abstraction on integrative agreements: When seeing the forest helps avoid getting tangled in the treesSocial Cognition, 27, 399-415.

Rim, S., Uleman, J. S., & Trope, Y. (2009). Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinkingJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1088-1097.

Wakslak, C., J., & Trope, Y. (2009 ). Cognitive consequences of affirming the self: The relationship between self-affirmation and object construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 927-932.

Amit, E., Algom, D., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2008). “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image:” The distance-dependence of representation. In K.D. Markman, W.M.P. Klein, & J.A. Suhr (Eds.),The handbook of imagination and mental simulation. New York: Psychology Press.

Liberman, N. & Trope, Y. (2008). The psychology of transcending the here and now. Science322, 1201-1205.

Fishbach, A., & Trope, Y. (2008). Implicit and explicit counteractive self-control. In J. E. Shah and W. L. Gardner (Eds), Handbook of Motivation Science ( pp. 281-294). New York : Guilford Press.

Wakslak, C., J., Nussbaum, S., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2008). Representations of the Self in the Near and Distant FutureJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 757-773.

Eyal, T., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2008). Judging near and distant virtue and viceJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209.

Liviatan, I., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2008). Interpersonal Similarity as a Social Distance Dimension: Implications for Perception of Others' ActionsJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1256-1269.

Fujita, K., Eyal, T., Chaiken, S., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2008). Influencing attitudes toward near and distant objectsJournal of Experimental Social Psychology , 44, 562-572 .

Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Stephan, E. (2007). Psychological distance. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles ( Vol. 2, pp. 353-383). New York: Guilford Press.

Bar-Anan, Y., Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Algom, D. (2007). Automatic processing of psychological distance: Evidence from a stroop taskJournal of Experimental Psychology: General136 , 610-622.

Todorov, A., Goren, A., & Trope, Y. (2007). Probability as a psychological distance: Construal and preference. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 473-482.

Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Wakslak, C. (2007). Construal levels and psychological distance: Effects on representation, prediction, evaluation, and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology,17, 83-95.

Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Wakslak, C. (2007). Construal level theory and consumer behaviorJournal of Consumer Psychology17, 113-117.

Liberman, N., Trope, Y., Macrae, S., & Sherman, S. J. (2007). The effect of level of construal on the temporal distance of activity enactmentJournal of Experimental Social Psychology , 43, 143-149.

Henderson, M. D., Fujita, K., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2006). Transcending the "here": The effect of spatial distance on social judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 845-856.

Bar-Anan, Y., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2006). The association between psychological distance and construal level: Evidence from an implicit association test. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 609-622.

Wakslak, C. J., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Aloni, R. (2006). Seeing the Forest When Entry is Unlikely: Probability and the Mental Representation of Events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 641-653.

Henderson, M. D., Trope, Y., & Carnevale, P. ( 2006). Negotiation from a near and distant time perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 712-729.

Nussbaum, S., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2006). Predicting the near and distant future. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 152-161 .

Smith, P. K., & Trope, Y. (2006). You focus on the forest when you're in charge of the trees: Power priming and abstract information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 578-596.

Fujita, K., Henderson, M., Eng, J., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2006). Spatial distance and mental construal of social events. Psychological Science, 17, 278-282.

Fujita, K., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Levin-Sagi, M. (2006). Construal levels and self-controlJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 351-367.

Trope, Y., Igou, E. R., & Burke, C. T. (2006). Mood as a resource in structuring goal pursuit. In J. P. Forgas, (Ed.). Affect in social thinking and behavior. New York: Psychology Press

Fujita, K., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2006). The role of mental construal in self-control. In D. DeCremer, M. Zeelenberg, & J. K. Murnighan (Eds.), Social psychology and economics (pp. 193-212). NJ: Erlbaum.

Soman, Dilip, George Ainslie, Shane Frederick, Xiuping Li, John Lynch, Page Moreau, Andrew Mitchell, Daniel Read, Alan Sawyer, Yaacov Trope, Klaus Wertenbroch, and Gal Zauberman (2005). The Psychology of Intertemporal Discounting: Why are Distant Events Valued Differently from Proximal Ones? Marketing Letters. 16 (3-4). 347-360.

Trope, Y. (2004). Theory in social psychology: Seeing the forest and the trees. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 8, 193-200.

Trope, Y., & Fishbach, A. (2004). Going beyond the motivation given: Self-control and situational control over behavior. In R. Hassin, J. S. Uleman, & J. W. Bargh (Eds.) The new unconscious (pp. 537-565). New York : Oxford University Press.

Eyal, T., Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Walther, E. (2004). The pros and cons of temporally near and distant action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology86, 781-795.

Freitas, T., Gollwitzer, P., & Trope, Y. (2004). Inferring others self-evaluative goals: The influence of abstract and concrete representations of feedabck situations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 739-750.

Cameron, J. A., & Trope, Y. (2004). Stereotype-biased search and processing of information about group members.Social Cognition22, 650-672.

Fishbach, A., & Trope, Y. (2004). The substitutability of external control and self-control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology41, 256-270.

Trope, Y., & Gaunt, R. (2003). Attribution and person perception. In M. A. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 190-209). New York: Sage Publications.

Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2003).  Temporal construal theory of intertemporal judgment and decision. In G. Loewenstein, D. Read and R. Baumeister (Eds.), Time and choice: Economic and Psychological Perspectives on Intertemporal Choice. New York: Sage Publications.

Nussbaum, S., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Creeping dispositionism: The temporal dynamics of behavior prediction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology84, 485-497.

Trope, Y., & Gaunt, R. (2003).  Attribution and person perception. In M. A. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: Sage Publications.

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal construal. Psychological Review110, 403-421.

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal Construal Theory of Time-Dependent Preferences.  In J. Carillo & I. Brocas and J. D. Carrill (Eds.), The psychology of economic decisions: Rationality and well-being.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Trope, Y., Gervey, B., & Bolger, N. (2003). The role of perceived control in overcoming defensive self-evaluations.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology39, 407-419.

Liberman, N., Sagristano, M. D., & Trope, Y. (2002). The effect of temporal distance on level of mental construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 38, 523-534.

Sagristano, M. D., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2002). Time-dependent gambling: Odds now, money later. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General131, 364-376.

Raghunathan, R., & Trope, Y. (2002). Walking the Tightrope Between Feeling Good and Being Accurate: Mood as a Resource in Processing Persuasive Messages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 510-525.

Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflexion and reflection: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 199-249). New York: Academic Press.

Chartrand, T. L., Ruble, D. N., & Trope, Y. (2001). Changes in task orientation and self-evaluation across phases of a transition. In A. Efklides, J. Kuhl., & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research. The Netherlands:  Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Trope, Y., Ferguson, M., & Raghunatan, R. (2001).  Mood as a resource in processing self-relevant information. In J. Forgas (Ed.). Handbook of affect and cognition (Vol. 1).  Guilford Press.

Trope, Y., Hassin, R., & Gervey, B. (2001) Overcoming defensive feedback seeking: The role of perceived ability and controllability.  In A. Efklides, J. Kuhl., & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Trope, Y., &  Ferguson, M.. (2000). Wishful thinking: When preferences influence inferences. In J. A. Bargh D. K. Appley (Ed.). Uncovering the mysteries of social life: Feschtrift in the honor of  Robert Zajonc.  Washington, D.C.: APA Press.

Hassin, R., & Trope, Y. (2000). Facing faces: Studies on the cognitive aspects of Physgionomy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 837-852.

Trope, Y., & Fishbach, A. (2000).  Counteractive control processes in overcoming temptation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 493-506.

Trope, Y., Gaunt, R. (2000).  Processing alternative explanations of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 79, 344-354.

Trope, Y., & Liberman N. (2000). Temporal construal and time-dependent changes in preferenceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology,79, 876-889.

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Yaacov Trope
Professor of Psychology

Department of Psychology
New York University
6 Washington Place, Room 507
New York, NY 10003
Tel: (212) 998-3897
Fax: (212) 995-4966

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