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In Press

Stolier, R.M., Hehman, E., & Freeman, J.B. (in press). Trait knowledge forms a common structure across social cognition. Nature Human Behaviour. [Supplementary Material]

Jones, B.C., DeBruine, L.M., Flake, J.K., ... ,Stolier, R.M., Oh, D., Freeman, J.B., ... , & Coles, N.A. (accepted in principle). To which world regions does the valence-dominance model of social perception apply? Nature Human Behaviour.

Freeman, J.B., Stolier, R.M., & Brooks, J.A. (in press). Dynamic interactive theory as a domain-general account of social perception. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology.

Brooks, J.A., Chikazoe, J., Sadato, N., & Freeman, J.B. (in press). The neural representation of facial emotion categories reflects conceptual structure. PNAS[Supplementary Material]

Hehman E., Stolier R.M., Freeman J.B., Flake J.K., & Xie S.Y. (in press). Toward a comprehensive model of face impressions: What we know, what we do not, and paths forward. Social and Personality Psychology Compass.

Freeman, J.B., Stolier, R.M., Brooks, J.A., & Stillerman, B.A. (in press). The neural representational geometry of social perception. Current Opinion in Psychology.

Stolier, R.M., Hehman, E., Keller, M.D., Walker, M., & Freeman, J.B. (in press). The conceptual structure of face impressions. PNAS.

Freeman, J.B. (in press). Doing psychological science by hand. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

Brooks. J.A. & Freeman, J.B. (in press). Neuroimaging of person perception: A social-visual interface. Neuroscience Letters. (special issue on Functional Imaging of the Emotional Brain).

Brooks, J.A., Stolier, R.M., & Freeman, J.B. (in press). Stereotypes bias visual prototypes for sex and emotion categories. Social Cognition.

Krendl, A.C. & Freeman, J.B. (in press). Are mental illnesses stigmatized for the same reasons?: Identifying the unique stigma-related traits underlying common mental illnesses. Journal of Mental Health.


Brooks, J.A. & Freeman, J.B. (2018). Conceptual knowledge predicts the representational structure of facial emotion perception. Nature Human Behaviour, 2, 581-591. [Supplementary Material]

Stolier, R.M., Hehman, E.A., & Freeman, J.B. (2018). A dynamic structure of social trait space. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22, 197-200.

Brambilla, M. Biella, M., & Freeman, J.B. (2018). The influence of visual context on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 78, 34-42.

Hehman, E.A., Flake, J.K., & Freeman, J.B. (2018). The faces of group members share physical resemblance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44, 3-15.

Freeman, J.B. (2018). The dynamic-interactive model approach to the perception of facial emotion. In R. Davidson, A. Shackman, A. Fox, & R. Lapate, The Nature of Emotion, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.

Brooks, J. A. & Freeman, J. B. (2018). The psychology and neuroscience of person perception. In J. Wixted, Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience, 4th Edition. Wiley.

Stillerman, B. S. & Freeman, J. B. (2018). Mouse-tracking for understanding real-time cognitive dynamics. In M. Schulte-Mecklenbeck, A. Kuhberger, & J. Johnson (Eds.), A Handbook of Process Tracing Methods for Decision Research, 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francis.

Lopez, R. B., Stillman, P. E., Heatherton, T. F., & Freeman, J. B. (2018). Minding one's reach (to eat): The promise of computer mouse-tracking to study self-regulation of eating. Frontiers in Nutrition, 5, 43.


Lick, D.J., Alter, A.L., & Freeman, J.B. (2017). Superior pattern detectors efficiently learn, activate, apply, and update social stereotypes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Stolier, R.M. & Freeman, J.B. (2017). A neural mechanism of social categorization. Journal of Neuroscience, 37, 5711-5721.

Cassidy, B.S., Sprout, G.T., Freeman, J.B., & Krendl, A.C. (2017). Looking the part (to me): Effects of racial prototypicality on race perception vary by prejudice. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, 685-694.

Stolier, R.M. & Freeman, J.B. (2017). Functional and temporal considerations for top-down influences in social perception. Psychological Inquiry, 27, 352-357.


Lazerus, T., Ingbretsen, Z., Stolier, R.M., Freeman, J.B., & Cikara, M. (2016). Positivity bias in judging in-group members' emotional expressions. Emotion, 16, 1117.

Stolier, R.M. & Freeman, J.B. (2016). Neural pattern similarity reveals the inherent intersection of social categories. Nature Neuroscience, 19, 795-797. [Supplementary Material]  [News & Views: 'Facing up to stereotypes']

Freeman, J.B. & Johnson, K.L. (2016). More than meets the eye: Split-second social perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20, 362-374.

Carpinella, C. M., Hehman, E., Freeman, J. B., Johnson, K. L. (2015). The gendered face of partisan politics: Consequences of facial sex-typicality for vote choice. Political Communication, 31, 1-15.

Chen, P.-H. A., Whalen, P. J., Freeman, J. B., Taylor, J. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (2015). Brain reward activity to masked in-group smiling faces predicts friendship development. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 415-421.

Chen, P.-H. A., Heatherton, T. F., & Freeman, J. B. (2015). Brain-as-predictor approach: An alternative way to explore acculuration processes. In J. E. Warnick & D. Landis, Handbook of Intercultural Relations Neuroscience. (pp 143-170). Springer.

Freeman, J.B., Pauker, K., & Sanchez, D.T. (2016). A perceptual pathway to bias: Interracial exposure reduces abrupt shifts in real-time race perception that predict mixed-race bias. Psychological Science.  [Supplementary material]


Freeman, J.B., Ma, Y., Barth, M., Young, S.G., Han, S., & Ambady, N. (2015). The neural basis of contextual influences on social categorization. Cerebral Cortex, 25, 415-422.

Hehman, E., Flake, J. K, Freeman, J. B. (in press). Static and dynamic facial cues differentially impact the consistency of social evaluations. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin.

Hehman, E., Stolier, R. M., & Freeman, J. B. (in press). Advanced mouse-tracking analytic techniques for enhancing psychological science. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations [special issue on Statistical and Methodological Advances].

Mattek, A.M., Whalen, P.J., Berkowitz, J.L., & Freeman, J.B. (2016). Differential effects of cognitive load on subjective versus motor responses to ambiguously valenced facial expressions. Emotion 16, 929.

Rule, N.O., Johnson, K.L., & Freeman, J.B. (2017). Evidence for the absence of stimulus quality differences in tests of the accuracy of sexual orientation judgments: A reply to Cox et al. (2015). Journal of Sex Research, 54, 813-819.

Stolier, R. M. & Freeman, J. B. (2016). The neuroscience of social vision. In J. Cloutier & J. R. Absher (eds.), Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition and Character: Traits and Mental States in the Brain, 139-157. Elsevier.

Vinson, D.W., Abney, D.H., Amso, D., Chemero, T., Cutting, J.E., Dale, R., Freeman, J.B., Feldman, L.B., Friston, K., Gallagher, S., Jordan, J.S., Mudrik, L., Ondobaka, S., Richardson, D., Shams, L., Shiffrar, M., & Spivey, M. (2016). Perception, as you make it. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39. [commentary on Firestone & Scholl]


Ambady, N. & Freeman, J. B. (2014). The cultural neuroscience of human perception. In M. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, 5th Edition. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Cloutier, J., Freeman, J. B., & Ambady, N. (2014). Investigating the early stages of person perception: The asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age. PLoS ONE, 9, e84677.

Freeman, J. B., Stolier, R. M., Ingbretsen, Z.A., & Hehman, E. (2014). Amygdala responsivity to high-level social information from unseen faces. Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 10573-10581.

Freeman, J. B. & Stolier, R. M. (2014). The medial prefrontal cortex in constructing personality models. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18, 571-572.

Freeman, J.B. (2014). Abrupt category shifts during real-time person perception. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 85-92.  [Supplementary material]

Freeman, J.B. & Ambady, N. (2014). The dynamic interactive model of person construal: Coordinating sensory and social processes. In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual Process Theories of the Social Mind. New York: Guilford Press.

Hehman, E., Ingbretsen, Z. A., & Freeman, J. B. (2014). The neural basis of stereotypic impact on multiple social categorization. NeuroImage, 101, 704-711.

Hehman, E., Carpinella, C. M., Johnson, K. L., Leitner, J. B., & Freeman, J. B. (2014). Early processing of gendered facial cues predicts the electoral success of female politicians. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 815-824. [Video]

Hehman, E., Leitner, J. B., Freeman, J. B. (2014). The face-time continuum: Lifespan changes in facial width-to-height ratio impact aging-associated perceptions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1624-1636.

Powers, K.E., Worsham, A.L., Freeman, J.B., Wheatley, T., & Heatherton, T. F. (2014). Social connection modulates perceptions of animacy. Psychological Science, 25, 1943-1948.

Rule, N. O., Tskhay, T., Freeman, J. B., & Ambady, N. (2014). On the interactive influence of facial appearance and explicit knowledge in social categorization. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 529-535.


Freeman, J.B. (2013). Within-cultural variation and the scope of cultural neuroscience. [Commentary on Chiao et al.]. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 26-30.

Freeman, J.B., Ma, Y., Han, S., & Ambady, N. (2013). Influences of culture and visual context on real-time social categorization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 206-210.   [Supplementary material]

Freeman, J.B. & Dale, R. (2013). Assessing bimodality to detect the presence of a dual cognitive process. Behavior Research Methods, 45, 83-97.

Freeman, J.B., Nakayama, K., & Ambady, N. (2013). Finger in flight reveals parallel categorization across multiple social dimensions. Social Cognition, 31, 792-805.

Pauker, K., Ambady, N., & Freeman, J.B. (2013). The power of identity to motivate face memory in biracial individuals. Social Cognition, 31, 780-791.

Pfister, R., Schwarz, K.A., Janczyk, M., Dale, R., & Freeman, J. B. (2013). Good things peak in pairs: A note on the bimodality coefficient. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 700.

Rule, N.O., Freeman, J.B., & Ambady, N. (2013). Culture in Social Neuroscience: A Review. Social Neuroscience, 8, 3-10.


Farmer, T.A., Anderson, S.E., Freeman, J.B., & Dale, R. (2012). Coordinating motor actions and language. In P. Pyykkonen & M. W. Crocker (Eds.), Visually Situated Language Comprehension. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Freeman, J.B., Johnson, K.L., Adams, R.B., & Ambady, N. (2012). The social-sensory interface: Category interactions in person perception. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6, e81.

Johnson, K.L., Freeman, J.B., & Pauker, K. (2012). Race is gendered: How covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 116-131.

Rule, N.O., Adams, R.B., Ambady, N., & Freeman, J.B. (2012). Perceptions of dominance following glimpses of faces and bodies. Perception, 41, 687-706.


Freeman, J.B. & Ambady, N. (2011). A dynamic interactive theory of person construal. Psychological Review, 118, 247-279.

Freeman, J.B., Ambady, N., Midgley, K.J., & Holcomb, P.J. (2011). The real-time link between person perception and action: Brain potential evidence for dynamic continuity. Social Neuroscience, 6, 139-155.

Freeman, J.B. & Ambady, N. (2011). Hand movements reveal the time-course of shape and pigmentation processing in face categorization. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 705-712.

Freeman, J.B. & Ambady, N. (2011). When two become one: Temporally dynamic integration of the face and voice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 259-263.    [Supplementary materials]

Freeman, J.B., Penner, A.M., Saperstein, A., Scheutz, M., & Ambady, N. (2011). Looking the part: Social status cues shape race perception. PLoS ONE, 6, e25107.  [HTML] [Video]

Freeman, J.B., Dale, R., & Farmer, T.A. (2011). Hand in motion reveals mind in motion. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 59.

Rule, N.O., Freeman, J.B., & Ambady, N. (2011). Brain and behavior in cultural context: Insights from cognition, perception, and emotion. In S. Han & E. Poeppel (Eds.) Culture and identity: Neural frames of social cognition. New York: Springer.

Rule N.O., Moran J.M., Freeman J.B., Gabrieli J.D.E., Whitfield-Gabrieli S., & Ambady N. (2011). Face value: Amygdala response reflects the validity of first impressions. NeuroImage, 54, 734-741.


Adams, R.B., Franklin, R., Rule, N.O., Freeman, J.B., Kveraga, K., Hadjikhani, N., Yoshikawa, S., & Ambady, N. (2010). Culture, gaze, and the neural processing of fear expressions. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 340-348.

Freeman, J.B., Rule, N.O., Adams, R.B., Jr., & Ambady, N. (2010). The neural basis of categorical face perception: Graded representations of face gender in fusiform and orbitofrontal cortices. Cerebral Cortex, 20, 1314-1322.

Freeman, J.B., Johnson, K.L., Ambady, N., & Rule, N.O. (2010). Sexual orientation perception involves gendered facial cues. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1318-1331.

Freeman, J.B., Schiller, D., Rule, N.O., & Ambady, N. (2010). The neural origins of superficial and individuated judgments about ingroup and outgroup members. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 150-159.

Freeman, J.B., Pauker, K., Apfelbaum, E.P., & Ambady, N. (2010). Continuous dynamics in the real-time perception of race. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 179-185.

Freeman, J.B. & Ambady, N. (2010). MouseTracker: Software for studying real-time mental processing using a computer mouse-tracking method. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 226-241.

Freeman, J.B., Ambady, N., & Holcomb, P.J. (2010). The face-sensitive N170 encodes social category information. NeuroReport, 21, 24-28.

Johnson, K.L. & Freeman, J.B. (2010). A "New Look" at person construal: Seeing beyond dominance and discreteness. In E. Balcetis & D. Lassiter (Eds.) The Social Psychology of Visual Perception. New York: Psychology Press.

Rule, N.O., Freeman, J.B., Moran, J.M., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Adams, R.B., & Ambady, N. (2010). Voting behavior is reflected in amygdala response across cultures. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 349-355.


Freeman, J.B. & Ambady, N. (2009). Motions of the hand expose the partial and parallel activation of stereotypes. Psychological Science, 20, 1183-1188.

Freeman, J.B., Rule, N.O., Adams, R.B., Jr., & Ambady, N. (2009). Culture shapes a mesolimbic response to signals of dominance and subordination that associates with behavior. NeuroImage, 47, 353-359.

Freeman, J.B., Rule, N.O., & Ambady, N. (2009). The cultural neuroscience of person perception. Progress in Brain Research, 178, 191-201.

Schiller, D., Freeman, J.B., Mitchell, J.P., Uleman, J.S., & Phelps, E.A. (2009). A neural mechanism of first impressions. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 508-514.


Freeman, J.B., Ambady, N., Rule, N.O., & Johnson, K.L. (2008). Will a category cue attract you? Motor output reveals dynamic competition across person construal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 673-690.


Cartoon illustration at top-right by Danielle Laurenti.