Ganor-Stern, D., Seamon, J.G., Carrasco, M. (1998) The role of attention
and study time in explicit and implicit memory for unfamiliar visual stimuli.
Memory & Cognition, 26(6): 1187-1195.
The effects of limited attentional resources and study time on explicit
and implicit memory were studied using Schacter and Cooper's possible
and impossible objects in their recognition and object decision paradigm.
In one experiment, when attention at study was limited by a flanking digits
procedure, object recognition was diminished but object decision priming
for possible objects was unaffected; in another experiment, limiting attention
plus reducing stimulus study time impaired object recognition and eliminated
object priming. Recognition memory and perceptual priming for previously
unfamiliar visual stimuli were both influenced by attention, although
to different degrees. The intervening variable of study time determined
the degree to which priming was affected by attentional resources. These
results support a limited capacity attentional model for both recognition
and perceptual priming of unfamiliar visual stimuli, and they highlight
the need for assessing the interaction of attentional resources and study
time in explicit and implicit memory tasks.