Ganor-Stern, D., Seamon, J.G., Carrasco, M. (1998) The role of attention and study time in explicit and implicit memory for unfamiliar visual stimuli. Memory & Cognition, 26(6): 1187-1195.

The effects of limited attentional resources and study time on explicit and implicit memory were studied using Schacter and Cooper's possible and impossible objects in their recognition and object decision paradigm. In one experiment, when attention at study was limited by a flanking digits procedure, object recognition was diminished but object decision priming for possible objects was unaffected; in another experiment, limiting attention plus reducing stimulus study time impaired object recognition and eliminated object priming. Recognition memory and perceptual priming for previously unfamiliar visual stimuli were both influenced by attention, although to different degrees. The intervening variable of study time determined the degree to which priming was affected by attentional resources. These results support a limited capacity attentional model for both recognition and perceptual priming of unfamiliar visual stimuli, and they highlight the need for assessing the interaction of attentional resources and study time in explicit and implicit memory tasks.